• Irma Rasita Gloria Barus Vocational School – IPB University
  • Ronald Simanjuntak Sekolah Tinggi Ilmu Pelayaran - Jakarta
  • Rosna Yuherlina Siahaan Sekolah Tinggi Ilmu Pelayaran - Jakarta
  • Gigih Prastyan Toko Sekolah Tinggi Ilmu Pelayaran
  • Ira Resmayasari Vocational School – IPB University
Keywords: Maritime education, Cultural diversity, English proficiency, International standards


This qualitative study investigates cultural and linguistic challenges faced by 45 junior cadets in global maritime education, focusing on English usage. Through interviews and focus group discussions, diverse English proficiency levels were identified among participants, highlighting the need for tailored language training programs. Communication challenges, particularly in understanding technical terminology and navigating cultural differences, emphasize the importance of targeted language instruction and cross-cultural training initiatives. Aligning with the International Maritime Organization's Standards of Training, Certification, and Watchkeeping (STCW), the study emphasizes the significance of linguistic competence and cultural awareness in ensuring safety and efficiency within maritime crews. The findings emphasize the importance of integrating language training initiatives into maritime education curriculum and fostering a culture of inclusivity and professionalism within the maritime industry.


D. House and F. Saeed. (2016). The seamanship examiner: for STCW certification examinations. Taylor & Francis.

TA Thiel. (1996). Maritime English for Communication and Cooperation.

A. Chircop. (2015). The international maritime organization.

HP Berg (2013). Human factors and safety culture in maritime safety,” Mar. Navig. Saf. Sea Transp. STCW, Marit. Educ. Trains. (MET), Hum. Resort. Crew Manning, Marit. Policy, Logist. Econ. Matters, vol. 107, pp. 107–115.

C. Kinginger. (2013). Social and Cultural Aspects of Language Learning in Study Abroad, vol. 37. Amsterdam: Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company.

J. Jackson. (2019). Introducing language and intercultural communication. Routledge.

M. Brenker, S. Möckel, M. Küper, S. Schmid, M. Spann, and S. Strohschneider. (2017). Challenges of multinational crewing: a qualitative study with cadets. WMU J. Marit. Aff., vol. 16, pp. 365–384.

N. Berg, J. Storgård, and J. Lappalainen. (2013). The impact of ship crews on maritime safety,” Publ. Cent. Marit. Stud. Univ. Turku A, vol. 64, pp. 1–48.

K. Cicek, E. Akyuz, and M. Celik. (2019). "Future skills requirements analysis in maritime industry," Procedia Comput. Sci., vol. 158, pp. 270–274.

I. de la Peña Zarzuelo, MJF Soeane, and BL Bermúdez. (2020). Industry 4.0 in the port and maritime industry: A literature review,” J.Ind. Inf. Integr., vol. 20, p. 100173.

ZH Munim, M. Dushenko, VJ Jimenez, MH Shakil, and M. Imset. (2020). Big data and artificial intelligence in the maritime industry: a bibliometric review and future research directions," Marit. Policy Manag., vol. 47, no. 5, pp. 577–597.

G. Valdés, A. Kibler, and A. Walqui. (2014). Changes in the expertise of ESL professionals: Knowledge and action in an era of new standards.” Alexandria, VA: TESOL International Association.

N. Demydenko. (2012). Teaching maritime English: A linguistic approach,” J. Shipp. Ocean Eng., vol. 2, no. 4, p. 249.

DM Vidhiasi and S. Syihabuddin. (2022). Maritime English: Teaching English for Maritime Sciences or Teaching Maritime Sciences in English?," Saintara J. Ilm. Maritime Sciences., vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 71–77.

T. Sukomardojo and D. Ratnaningsih. (2022). The Using of Media Games to Improve SMCP (Standard Marine Communication Phrases) Vocabulary in Maritime English, in ICES 2021: Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference of Education and Science, ICES 2021, November 17-18, 2021, Jakarta, Indonesia, p. 56.

A. Mandaraka-Sheppard. (2014). Modern maritime law and risk management. CRC Press.

S. Yousefi and M. Mohammadi. (2016). Critical Thinking and Reading Comprehension among Postgraduate Students: The Case of Gender and Language Proficiency Level, Journal of Language Teaching and Research, vol. 7, no. 4. Academy Publications, p. 802, doi: 10.17507/jltr.0704.23.

S.-H. Ting, E. Marzuki, K.-M. Chuah, J. Misieng, and C. Jerome. (2017). Employers' views on the importance of English proficiency and communication skills for employability in Malaysia, Indonesia. J. Appl. Linguist., vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 315–327.

Y. Autsadee, J. Jeevan, NH Bin Mohd Salleh, and MR Bin Othman. (2023). Digital tools and challenges in human resource development and its potential within the maritime sector through bibliometric analysis. J. Int. Marit. Safety, Environ. Aff. Shipp., vol. 7, no. 4, p. 2286409.

P. Trenkner. (2009). Maritime English requirements and the revised STCW,” in Szczecin: Proceedings of the International Maritime English Conference IMEC, vol. 21, pp. 5–10.

J.-K. Kim and S.-H. Park. (2019). A Study on Improvement of Maritime Education by Aging Seamen,” J. Korean Soc. Mar. Environ. Saf., vol. 25, no. 7, pp. 874–880.

R. Kidd and E. McCarthy. (2019). Maritime education in the age of autonomy, WIT Trans. Built Environ., vol. 187, pp. 221–230.

P. Edirisinghe, J. Zhihong, and S. Lixin. (2016). The Direction of Maritime Education and Training development: A Conceptual Approach.

D. Gavalas, T. Syriopoulos, and E. Roumpis,. (2022). Digital adoption and efficiency in the maritime industry,” J. Shipp. Trade, vol. 7, no. 1, p. 11.

K. Bergheim, MB Nielsen, K. Mearns, and J. Eid. (2015). The relationship between psychological capital, job satisfaction, and safety perceptions in the maritime industry," Saf. Sci., vol. 74, pp. 27–36.

I. Ranzato and S. Zanotti. (2018). Linguistic and cultural representation in audiovisual translation / edited by Irene Ranzato and Serenella Zanotti.Abingdon, Oxon.

SB Merriam and RS Grenier. (2019). Qualitative research in practice: Examples for discussion and analysis. John Wiley & Sons.

D.K. Padgett. (2016). Qualitative methods in social work research, vol. 36. Sage publications.

T. Rachmawati. (2017). Data collection methods in qualitative research, UNPAR Press, vol. 1, pp. 1–29.

CG Haryono. (2020). Various Qualitative Communication Research Methods. CV Trace (Publisher Trace).

PMGB de Água, AD da Silva Frias, M. de J. Carrasqueira, and JMM Daniel. (2020). Future of maritime education and training: blending hard and soft skills,” Pomorstvo, vol. 34, no. 2, pp. 345–353.

O. Dyagileva, N. Goridko, H. Popova, S. Voloshynov, and A. Yurzhenko. (2020). Ensuring sustainable development of education of future maritime transport professionals by means of network interaction.

H. Wijaya. (2020). Concept theory qualitative data analysis in educational research. Jaffray Theological College.

DJ Weisberg. (2016). Methods and Strategies in Using Digital Literacy in Media and the Arts,” Advances in Media, Entertainment, and the Arts. IGI Global, pp. 456–471. doi: 10.4018/978-1-4666-9667-9.ch022.

AOH Alidmat and MA Ayassrah. (2017). Development of Critical Thinking Skills through Writing Tasks: Challenges Facing Maritime English Students at Aqaba College, AlBalqa Applied University, Jordan. Int. J. High. Educ., vol. 6, no. 3, pp. 82–90.

A. Döring and P. Horden. (2022). Mediterranean Sea-Creature: Maritime Metaphor in the Philosophy of Friedrich Nietzsche BT - Metaphors and Analogies in Sciences and Humanities: Words and Worlds,” S. Wuppuluri and AC Grayling, Eds. Cham: Springer International Publishing, pp. 481–498. doi: 10.1007/978-3-030-90688-7_23.

A. Sharma, T. Kim, S. Nazir, and C. Chae. (2019). Catching up with time? Examining the STCW competency framework for autonomous shipping, in Proceedings of the Ergoship Conference, Haugesund, Norway, pp. 24–25.

R. Ahmed. (2021). A framework for Maritime English language planning in Bangladeshi maritime education and training institutes,” SN Soc. Sci., vol. 1, no. 7, p. 168, Accessed: Jan. 10, 2024. [Online]. Available:

L. Van Canh. (2014). Great expectations: The TESOL practice as a professional learning experience,” Tesol J., vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 199–224.

HDV Nalupa. (2022). Challenges and opportunities for maritime education and training in the 4th industrial revolution.